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Glossary of Terms

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Glossary of Terms

Adult guardianship system
A system in which adult guardians provide daily life and financial management support for persons who lack decision-making ability due to dementia, intellectual disorders and/or other mental disorders. There are two ways for a legal guardian to be selected: appointment by family court and voluntary selection of a future guardian by the affected person while he or she still has the capacity to make decisions.

Affirmative action
Taking assertive measures to promote women and persons with disabilities in the workplace or in higher education in order to encourage their participation in overall society. In such cases, a special admission quota or preferential treatments are often introduced.

Allotment garden
A rental garden opened by farmland owners that takes advantage of unused land. A garden consists of 40-70 compartments, and one compartment has an area of 10-16.5 m2 (3-5 tsubo).

Barrier free
Removing obstacles so that the elderly and disabled and disadvantaged citizens can lead active lives.

Business Base Hiroshima
A concentrated hub for industrial support service industries including information services, advertising, and design. Established by Hiroshima Software Center Co., Ltd. in March 2009 as part of the Hiroshima Mixis Building in Nishi Ward Shoko Center (commercial/industrial center). Jointly run by the City of Hiroshima and Hiroshima Prefecture.

Business placement promotional subsidy program
A subsidy system for the enterprises attempting to start a business using newly acquired or rented land or buildings within the city. The breakdown of the subsidies provided in fiscal 2009 includes subsidies (max: 500 million yen) for invested capital (acquisition of buildings, equipment, etc.), fixed asset taxes, city planning taxes and business taxes in addition to incentive money for new hires. Formulated in FY 2005.

Carbon emissions trading
A form of business activity based on a predetermined framework regarding greenhouse gas emissions in which the rights to emit gases over a certain amount are traded in formal markets.

Certified farmer program
A system, based on the Agricultural Management Framework Reinforcement Act, in which the City of Hiroshima certifies plans derived by local farmers and gives support to those farmers in the form of management guidance and financial assistance.

Civic activity insurance
A type of insurance provided by the City of Hiroshima for civic activity participants in order to allow citizens to participate in such activities with security. Eligible for individuals that belong to citizen volunteer organizations based in Hiroshima as well as persons engaged in planned civic activities (leaders and staff that carry out volunteer activities at various organizations, participants in concrete activities, etc.).

The substance of information provided thorough networks including broadcasting and Internet.

Designated manager system
A system, based on the Local Autonomy Act, created to delegate the administration of the facilities belonging to local public agencies to private corporations and other various organizations.

Domestic violence
To suffer an act of violence by a person present in one’s daily life such as a spouse or lover living together in the same house. It covers not only physical violence but also encompasses verbal violence, forced sexual acts and destruction of property. Also known as DV.

Environmental impact assessment system
A system for surveying, estimating and evaluating in advance the impact on the environment caused by the implementation of projects. Created in order to properly review environmental conservation measures for development activities

Expanded urban core
City area including Kamiya-cho, Hatchobori, and the Peace Memorial Park, where a great amount of highlevel urban functions are being accumulated and dense urban spaces are being created with pivotal access to transportation. Established as part of the Hiroshima Downtown Vision formulated in February 2005.

Forest volunteers
Volunteers who are bound to become leaders of afforestation projects involving citizens. The city designates the graduates of the training courses for the acquisition of basic knowledge and skills related to forest preservation as “Forest Mates.”

Greenhouse gases
Gases in the atmosphere that absorb and emit infrared rays. Greenhouse gases that are targeted for emissions reductions are: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons. (These gases are as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change treaty adopted at the third conference in Kyoto, Japan in 1997.)

Hiroshima Curriculum
Hiroshima’s new and unique curriculum which builds on the syllabus covering nine years of compulsory education. Will introduce communicative language and real-world application math classes from grades five to nine and add English language to the fifth and sixth grade elementary school curriculum. Scheduled to be implemented in all municipal elementary and junior high schools from fiscal year 2010.

Hiroshima Greater Metropolis Zone
An area centered around Hiroshima City that consists of 11 cities and 12 towns in Hiroshima Prefecture and Yamaguchi Prefecture. A round-table conference for the formation of the Hiroshima Greater Metropolis Zone was organized with the Mayor of Hiroshima as its chair. It currently runs several projects including joint training programs between government workers of different areas, inter-area exchange projects, information service projects within the zone, and “local production for local consumption” projects.

The city’s original brand name for the agricultural, forest and marine products produced by the farmers, foresters and fishers within the city. Designated products bear a special symbol mark created by the City of Hiroshima.

Hiroshima-Nagasaki Peace Study Course
An academic course, proposed by the City of Hiroshima, created so that the meaning of the hibakusha’s message “no one else should ever suffer as we did” may be communicated to the young generation in the form of a universally applicable academic course of instruction. In cooperation with the City of Nagasaki, we are currently promoting its adoption at various universities in Japan and around the world.

ICT (Information and communication technology)
Synonymous to IT, information technology. The City of Hiroshima is using this term to emphasize the importance of communication while promoting ICT use.

Industry-academia-government-citizen collaboration
Industry refers to private-sector businesses, academia to universities and professional training colleges, government to central and local governments and their related organizations, and citizen to civic organizations such as NPOs and individuals.

Information security
Refers to efforts for the safe management and proper utilization of information resources.

Leave Your Car at Home Day
An approach that aims at expanding activities related to global warming prevention by re-considering lifestyles built on excessive automobile dependence, raising every citizen’s awareness as well as properly practicing and experiencing proper vehicle usage. It was decided in July 2006 that the 22nd day of every month would be “Leave Your Car at Home Day.” In July 2008, it was expanded to include the 2nd and 12th days as well.

Life cycle cost
Total costs of a facility ranging from the planning, design, construction and preservation to its maintenance, dismantling and final disposal.

Low-carbon society
A society with low carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas emissions. Ultimately, a society that limits its greenhouse gas emissions to a level that can be naturally absorbed by nature.

Mayors for Peace
Established in 1982 at the 2nd United Nations Special Session on Disarmament when the mayor of Hiroshima made an appeal to cities around the world to work together for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Originally called the World Conference of Mayors for Peace through Inter-City Solidarity, it was renamed Mayors for Peace in 2001. Acting on the basis that cities will suffer most from the use of nuclear weapons, Mayors for Peace has continuously worked to build worldwide public support and to petition nuclear weapon states for the abolition of nuclear weapons and realization of lasting world peace. Has 3,104 member cities in 134 countries and regions as of September 2009.

The idea that people of different nationalities and ethnicities can understand and accept each others’ cultural differences, build equal relationships, and live together peacefully as members of society.

New center of urban development
Areas around Hiroshima Station undergoing largescale redevelopment to become a lively urban center that will propel new growth in the city. Designated in the Hiroshima Downtown Vision from February 2005.

NPO (Non-profit organization)
A not-for-profit organization engaged in volunteer and service activities that are of self-benefit.

Primary physician
A physician who assists a patient in their daily lives by conducting medical examinations and consultations in the patient’s nearby area on a regular basis. He or she may also introduce the patient to a specialist or health/welfare services if necessary.

Residential environment
Immediate living environment including the landscape, street scene and local community. It also includes residential scale, rates of structural deterioration, ventilation, amount of lighting, greening of premises, population density, and residents’ homes.

School assessment
An approach for the improvement of school administration conducted by the schools or school founders based on the results of the assessment concerning educational activities and school administration Hiroshima’s self-assessment system was implemented in 2003, an external assessment system was added in 2005, and third-party accreditation by specialists was introduced in 2008.

Sexual harassment
To complicate the workplace or other social environments by putting others in disadvantaged positions via non-consensual sexual behavior or language.

Sustainable market economy
A market economy capable of attaining sustainable development while effectively responding to the finite nature of resources and making efforts to reduce environmental impact.

A work pattern in which work is performed at a place remote from an employee’s office or a client’s site utilizing telecommunications equipment such as personal computers.

TOPS Hiroshima
An organization founded in April 2000 that was made possible by several sports clubs based in Hiroshima Prefecture that transcended the conventional boundaries between sports. Its official name is “Hiroshima Tops Sport Club Network.” As of September 2009, there are 9 member teams: Sanfrecce Hiroshima; JT Thunders; Wakunaga Team Handball Club; Hiroshima Maple Reds; Hiroshima Gas Badminton Team; NTT West Hiroshima Soft Tennis Club; The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc Track and Field Team; Coca-Cola West Red Sparks Field Hockey Club; Hiroshima Toyo Carp.

Transportation demand management
Refers to the review of the time slots for vehicle use and travel routes as well as efforts to accelerate an overall conversion from using personal vehicles to using public transportation. One of the methods to mitigate traffic congestion.

Ubiquitous network society
An information and communications network society in which computers are used in various aspects of daily life, effectively forming a greater system of mutual cooperation.

Universal design
A concept for designing products, facilities and services to provide ease of access for various people regardless of age, sex, race or disabilities.

Urban Environmental Accords
An inter-city agreement concerning environmental issues signed in June 2005 in San Francisco. 21 specific action targets to be addressed by each city were set up in seven fields: energy, waste reduction, urban design, urban nature, urban transportation, environmental health and water.

Networked services that support daily life, including electricity, gas, water supply, sewerage, etc. (Referred to as “lifelines” in Japan.)

Visitor industries
All industries that cater to visitors such as the travel, restaurant, lodging, and transportation industry.

Work-life balance
A concept that suggests efforts to harmonize work with private life. In order to realize this concept, businesses are introducing flextime (system aiming to meet scheduled working hours by allowing employees to freely chose start and finish times for work), shorter working hours systems for the sake of child care and nursing care, work-at-home systems, telework, etc.

Zero-emissions city
A city that works to reduce its environmental footprint through the collective efforts of citizens, businesses, and the government to recycle and reuse resources as much as possible and to minimize the consumption of resources during all stages of a product’s life-cycle from production, distribution, use and disposal.



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